Application Whitelisting: What it is and how to use it

Application whitelisting is the act of allowing only approved applications to run. The application whitelisting tools have a variety of features that a business will require to properly whitelist. This could include whitelisting executable names, paths or even generating signatures of the application to be stored in a database. It could even use all of these and heuristics in order to determine the application’s risk score.
Large organizations use application whitelisting tools to reduce the number of unsupported applications that they don’t want running. This can be done for many reasons. It can be used to prevent unauthorized or unsafe software from getting on the network in highly secured environments. It can also help reduce malicious software by allowing only the good and desired software to be allowed on the network. It can be used to prevent malicious software being injected or infected when computers are shared.
Application Whitelisting vs. Blacklisting
There are two ways to look at the same problem: application whitelisting or blacklisting. You can create a list of good applications that you want to allow with application whitelisting. This is based on Zero Trust, where everything is assumed to not be trusted unless it’s whitelisted. This can be the best way to go if you have a small number of applications and a good team to maintain and update a whitelist. Problems can arise when new applications are needed or signatures of existing apps change due to software upgrades and the team isn’t responsive enough to rectify it promptly.
Blacklisting, on the other hand, requires much less overhead. It is assumed that everyone can be trusted, except for a few bad actors. As soon as they become known, organizations may blacklist applicants. Sometimes, it can be difficult to keep up with the new applications that might need to be added.
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Start trainingSome organizations use a mix of blacklisting known bad apps and whitelisting known good ones to determine if an application is worthy of consideration. This hybrid approach usually allows for a default to be used, if there is no clear decision.
How does Application Whitelisting work?
There are several ways that application whitelisting can be done. Basic ones may use the name and path of the application to whitelist. This is problematic because malicious software could use the same paths and names of the applications to bypass whitelisting. Whitelisting packages that go into greater detail tend to use signatures or checksums of the application. If the application has been altered, the signature would be different and not allowed on the whitelist.
Recent years have seen application packages signed by a publisher. This not only ensures that the application packages are authentic, but also guarantees that they have been properly verified. Microsoft signs all its applications, so you can be sure they are genuine Microsoft applications. This is important because Application Whitelisting Tools that are aware can make it easier to whitelist by the publisher.
How to implement Application Whitelisting
A few tools can be used for application whitelisting. While most antivirus software is built around the blacklisting concept, with particular code segments being blacklisted, some antivirus software works off application whitelisting. It’s great if your antivirus software works off whitelisting, and meets your needs. This is not the case for many people.
Application whitelisting tools, which are more specific applications, are geared towards this type and are often a be

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Advanced Juniper Routing Protocols

This 96-video advanced training by Knox Hutchinson, SPOTO trainer, covers the knowledge network administrators need in order to implement, monitor, and troubleshoot advanced protocols such as OSPF, BGP and multicast all within a Juniper enterprise network.
This is the new Juniper training.
Juniper networks at enterprise level depend on certain Layer 3 components being implemented correctly to function properly. Advanced Juniper Routing Protocols training prepares network managers for performing, monitoring, and troubleshooting these implementations.
This course covers Open Shortest Path First, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), multicast and class of service (CoS), as well as how they work in enterprise networks powered Juniper devices. This training can help you achieve this level of management and administration.
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Start training. This 10-part series covers topics like implementing advanced network protocols on Juniper enterprise networking devices, incorporating devices and protocols necessary for advanced architectural designs, and configuring and monitoring Junos operating systems.
You can watch a video from the series here:

This series includes the following skills:
Advanced OSPF Foundations
Advanced OSPF Configurations and Use cases
Advanced IS-IS Foundations
Advanced IS-IS Configurations
Advanced BGP Foundations
Advanced BGP Configurations & Policies
Advanced BGP Attribute, Community Manipulation
BGP Scaling Solutions
Understanding and Configuring BGP FlowSpec
Understanding and Configuring BGP Route Damping

This training covers the following topics:
Multi-Area Single Adjacency
PE: Create an import policy
AS PATH: Loops
Summarizing BGP Attributes
Route Summarization

This training includes:
Training for 11 hours
96 videos

Learn Juniper now!

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SPOTO offers everything you need to improve your IT skills and advance in your career: unlimited video training and Practice exams, Virtual Labs and validated learning with in–video Quizzes, Accountability coaching, and access to our exclusive IT professionals community.

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A Day in the Life of Linux System Administrator

Recently, I was asked what a typical day looks like for a sysadmin. It is actually much simpler than most people imagine. A typical day involves spending 6+ hours staring at a screen trying to figure why OSX Open Directory won’t authenticate to Active Directory servers. Or a 14-hour marathon of installing patches individually on workstations. These patches are network patches that fail when installed remotely. Instead of giving an example of an average day, let me create one that is unusually busy and productive. This includes tasks that occur regularly, but they don’t always happen in the same day. You should keep in mind that some of these items do occur every day, especially the maintenance stuff.
It’s also true that not every day is the best or most efficient way to run a system administrator’s day. I’ll take notes as I go through my “normal” day. Even the most experienced professional can improve their efficiency, workflow, and work flow. I’ll try my best to help… myself!
3:58 a.m.Wake up. Daylight Savings Time is still not over. It’s not unusual to wake up two minutes before your alarm goes off, but it is quite common to wake up an hour and two minutes before your alarm goes off. Ugh.
4:11 a.m. I try to fall asleep, but my concern about possible overnight catastrophes keeps you awake.
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Start training at 4:17 a.m. Capitulate and grab your cellphone from the nightstand. If you don’t have glasses, hold the phone two inches from your face and be blinded by its brightness. You should check your emails for automated failure notices. Emails that aren’t loaded, including SPAM, may not be received. Force quit mail app and start it again: 47 new messages. However, a quick scan of the subject matter shows that there are no major failure notifications. Put the phone down and go to sleep.
4:23 a.m.Can’t sleep. Grab your phone and check Twitter and Facebook, G+, or browse news sites. Check that the network is up and all websites are loaded from work. Verify that the network backups were successful last night at work.
NOTE: Although I don’t know if it’s possible to stop myself manually checking servers and such, it’s far more efficient to automate checks from both external and internal sources and then have reports emailed directly to you. Make sure you read the daily report and, if necessary, if it arrives with Kills, don’t hesitate to contact me. You’ll know where to begin. You will know exactly where to start if you have too many email reports.
4.45 a.m. Get up and get out of bed. Put on your glasses and go to the kitchen. Realize that I forgot the dogs. Go back and let them go outside. After you have loaded the coffee pot, measure the beans. I use a hand grinder to grind the beans. I do this for about five minutes with a crank. You can press “brew” to enter the office.
4:48 a.m. Dogs barking at nothing in the front yard Before the neighbors get mad, run to the door and call them in.
5:56 a.m. I wish I could have slept at 4 a.m. but it’s time for me to get up to wake the kids. I could definitely sleep, but it’s not an option.
6:01 a.m. Get up and get dressed for the first time.
6:05 a.m. Drink a second cup of coffee while you read online news sites. You can see graphs of both your home and work networks. These graphs include bandwidth usage overnight, CPU loads and memory usage. Everything looks good.
NOTE: Even if your email reports look fine, it is worth taking a quick look at your systems. One time I had perfectly-designed reports and was shocked to discover that my web server had been infected by an Internet worm. It had also filled up its RAM and swap files with requests. Reports only report what they are asked to report. Don’t be offended if your monitor program says, “But you didn’t ASK me about swap files.”

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A Complete Scrum Certification Guide

This Scrum Certification Guide provides a detailed introduction to the Scrum certification badges, the recommended Scrum certification paths, costs associated with Scrum certification, as well as insight into job opportunities that relate to Scrum certification.
What is Scrum Certification?
Scrum Certification is a set if credentials that ensure that Scrum Agile framework and practices are used by Scrum developers to create complex software development projects. Scrum Alliance and offer Scrum Master, Scrum Product Owner and Scrum Developer credentials. also offers additional Scrum certifications that can be used to demonstrate proficiency in Scrum scaling, Scrum with Kanban, Scrum team leadership, and Scrum with Kanban.
What is Scrum?
Because progress flows in one direction, from concept to analysis, design, development, testing, deployment, and maintenance, the waterfall model of software engineering is called so. Waterfall-based software development has been replaced by flexible software development lifecycles (SDLC) models, including Agile development models.
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Start trainingAgile software development relies on collaboration between cross-functional teams and end-user customers. Agile allows developers to respond to user changes and incorporate them into their development processes. Agile development is based upon a set of guiding principles. Projects are executed using a specific Agile methodology such as Extreme Programming, Kanban, and Scrum.
Scrum projects produce the output, “the Product”, in a series iterations known as “Sprints”. Sprints are used for breaking down complex projects into smaller, more manageable components. Each sprint includes a subset the features required from the Product Backlog, which is the prioritized list of requirements that are needed in the product. supports the Scrum Agile framework and offers certifications and assessments for Scrum Team practitioners. According to, a Scrum Team is composed of a Product Owner and Development Team members, as well as a Scrum Master.
What is a Scrum Product owner?
The Scrum Product Owner is the person responsible for the final product of a development project. He or she is responsible for the details and priorities of user needs that go into the Product Backlog as well as into each Sprint. While other members of the Development Team may be responsible for the work, the Product Owner is still responsible.
The Product Owner is able to understand the market and business vision of the Scrum Team and ensures that the product delivers. The Product Owner works closely with the Scrum Team, other stakeholders, to create, manage, communicate, and communicate the Product Backlog so that the Development Team incorporates the necessary features in each Sprint.
What is a Scrum Master?
Scrum’s creators defined Scrum Master’s role as the “Servant Leader” for the Scrum Development Team. The Scrum Master is an expert on Scrum. As a leader, the Scrum Master is responsible for ensuring the Product Development Team understands the Scrum Process and follows it. As a servant, the Scrum Master organizes Scrum Events, assists the Product Owner with managing the Product Backlog, coaches and removes obstacles to team progress, among other responsibilities.
What is a Scrum Team and how do they work?
The Scrum Development Team is small and agile team of software developers. Scrum Team members are not assigned roles like tester, programmer, designer or programmer. Instead, they are cross-functional and work together in order to complete the tasks for each sprint.
The Development Team is self-organizing. Team members decide amon

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The Amazon Storage Gateway: What and How to Use It All

The Storage Gateway service is one of the greatest benefits of Amazon Web Services. It makes it easier than ever to use AWS cloud storage. Learn more about Storage Gateway and how it works.

The Cloud Storage Gateway Solution
It is possible to wonder how you could ever be best friends with a storage gateway. You’ll be able to see how difficult cloud storage can seem if you’ve ever used an object store that is cloud-based with interfaces like SOAP or REST. Why?
Because applications expect storage resources with file-based interfaces like CIFS and NFS. This can frustrate both you and your machine.
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Instead of saying “Hello!”, start training To the storage gateway of your dreams. This virtual appliance is located in your data center and can present file- or block-based interfaces for your applications. It can also perform protocol conversion to send data directly into cloud storage services.
The data is also encrypted before being sent. The encryption is done over a secure sockets layer. Volume and snapshot data are encrypted using 256-bit encryption keys. This storage gateway also supports CHAP for iSCSI. The server sends a challenge message to the storage gateway and verifies the response.
The AWS storage gateway will compress the data and dedupe it, resulting in a significantly faster data speed. You can also set up your storage gateway to store recent backups. You can therefore quickly retrieve the most recent backups without spending time searching.

What is AWS Storage Gateway?
This amazing tool connects storage in the AWS cloud to your on-premises software. AWS storage gateway allows you to save money by transferring your software to cloud-based storage quickly and securely.
Point-in-time snapshots can be taken of your on-premise data. But that’s not all. The AWS Storage Gateway can also mirror data on-premises. Amazon designed the storage gateway as an additional storage option and can be used with AWS. AWS is increasingly used by more companies for their data storage needs.

You can download the AWS Storage Gateway virtual machine image to get it. The gateway is then installed in the data centre. The AWS Management Console allows you to access the gateway and interact with it. These are just a few of the features that the gateway supports:
Gateway-cached volumes
Gateway-virtual tape collection (VTL).
Gateway-stored volumes (for primary data storage in Amazon Simple Storage Service, or S3)

This hybrid storage service includes bandwidth management and efficient data transfers.

Replace Backup Tapes
We have good news for you if you are tired of backup tapes and tape automation equipment. The storage gateway can be configured to replace tape automation equipment with local disk and cloud storage. This can help you save money.
The virtual tapes can then easily be transferred to Amazon S3. This is the best option for optimizing your transfers. You get bandwidth management, compression, and encryption built in. You can also adjust the scale and latency to suit your workloads.

It’s easy to bring data to the cloud
DIY storage is not something that anyone likes. Everybody wants an integrated, user-friendly solution. This is exactly what AWS Storage Gateway offers. It could be compared to a block storage device, if cloud storage is the modern day hard drive. It is so easy to transfer files to the cloud with the storage gateway.
Imagine a situation in which all your files are lost. What if there is no other data center? You can simply reinstall the storage gateway as a virtual appliance. You can then transfer backup files back to the storage gateway to decompress them and pass them to your applications.
Even your most acti

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The 8 Levers of Change

(This post contains affiliate hyperlinks. Please read my full disclosure.
Cassie A. Solomon and Gregory P. Shea, authors of Leading Successful Change: 8 Keys for Making Change Work, discuss the 8 things you should be focusing on if you want your project’s change management efforts to succeed.
They say that if you don’t address at least four of these elements, your project will fail. People will fall back to their old ways.
Shea and Solomon write that moving any of the 8 Levers of Change can alter the work environment in a specific way and send a different set of cues for those who live there. “Change enough levers to allow the owners of the behavior, and indeed, to see that it is time to adapt to a different set of environmental cues.
What are the key things to look out for in your projects? These are the 8 levers that will bring about change.

1. Organization
2. Workplace design
3. Tasks
4. People
5. Rewards
6. Measurement
7. Information distribution
8. Allocation of decisions
Next steps

1. Organization
The organization element describes how things are organized in the company. What is centrally managed and what is decentralized? One example would be whether project managers are distributed across different departments or a single Project Management Office. How will this affect your ability to drive through change in your project?
You may also find organizations that are divided by geography or division. This could impact your ability to implement change. Do you see a lot of people working in silos or cross-functional teams?
These are the things you need to think about if you want your project to succeed. To get the best results, you must tailor your approach to the project and the changes it will bring.
If you want to make your project more successful, you should consider redesigning your organization chart. It is also possible to look at the involvement that you require from other teams, and how you will get it, if you are trying to break down silos or geographic barriers between departments.
You can learn different skills to manage an international team.
2. Workplace design
The layout of the workplace affects the employees. One time I did a study on improving business processes for a leadership institute. One of the things I heard when interviewing the Marketing team was how much time they thought they could save if they had their fax machine (remember them?). Instead of walking to a shared machine,
This was an easy fix that would have made the staff feel heard and resulted in a boost in morale. This would also help save time which is a benefit for everyone. Although I believe the management team was expecting some more radical suggestions, it was the fax machine one that stuck with us — so simple to fix.
They made a simple change, which I believe was the final result.
Solomon and Shea argue that people can work together by putting things in close proximity to each other. Is it possible to embed the change by moving equipment and people around? What technology can you use to help you accomplish the same thing even if you are unable to physically move the people?
Another option is collaboration tools for project managers. They will allow people to work together more effectively, regardless of where they live.
3. Tasks
Although it may seem simple, it is worth paying attention to. It doesn’t necessarily mean that tasks or workflows are the most efficient or effective. It can be helpful to take stock of the tasks you are assigned and compare them with your internal workflows to determine if there are any gaps.

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The 7-S Framework: Project Management Remix

Project management can be very fast-paced. Sometimes things can get out of control. It’s easy to forget about the strategic alignment we’ve heard so much about in project management publications over the past year.
The tools and techniques that are available will make it easier to stay on top of everything and align with organizational goals.
TaskQue’s project management software, models, techniques, and project management software are all useful. They simplify your tasks and keep it on track to success.

The 7-S Framework
7-S for Project Management
Hard Elements1. Strategy
2. Structure
3. Systems

Soft Elements4. Shared Values
5. Style
6. Staff
7. Skills

Only theory is useful if it is implemented
Make it work for your benefit

The 7-S Framework
One of these models is the 7S framework. This tool helps you understand the complexity of your organization.
It was introduced by McKinsey thinkers in the 1970s and was revolutionary in how organizations work. Prior to this, the emphasis was on hierarchy and the firm’s physical structure. The 7-S model focuses more on coordination through a connected web that influences how an organization can work and change.
7-S for Project Management
Although the 7-S framework was not designed for project management, it can be used to determine how aligned your project goals with your organizational goals. It also helps you to identify what needs to change to improve this correlation.
The framework is broken down into – surprise! – 7 categories that are divided into hard and soft elements. Let’s take a closer look at the ones that have a special focus on project management.
Hard Elements
The hard elements include Strategy, Structure, and Systems.
Because these elements have a huge impact on your projects, they are easier to identify, define, and understand for project managers. This category includes everything from formal processes, strategies and reporting to organizational charts and IT system systems.
1. Strategy
To achieve success, it is not enough to set project objectives. A plan and strategy should be developed to help you succeed and reach your goals.
All team members should be aware of the project plan and strategy. The project strategy should be focused on how to maintain and build a competitive advantage over your competitors. Strategy can change due to changes in the external environment and situation. Your project sponsor and board will likely direct your work.
2. Structure
This element determines who will report to whom. The Structure element of the 7S model includes organizational charts for your project as well as other related resource documents.
It doesn’t matter how large the project is, it’s important that your team members know who reports to whom.
3. Systems
The System element describes how tasks will be completed and the process that will be followed. It includes areas that relate to business operations and the business side of running projects.
You spend a lot time as a project manager removing bottlenecks from your team so they can fulfill their responsibilities and get better results. This is how systems work.
Soft Elements
There are four soft elements: Shared values, style, staff and skills. Soft elements are hard to quantify and heavily depend on organizational culture. This makes it difficult to put them into practice in a project environment.
4. Shared Values
The first soft element of organizational culture is shared values. It is the shared values that bind the team and foster teamwork and cohesiveness.
These characteristics run deep within the organization. Companies never forget about them.

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The Cyber Attack Lifecycle: 6 Stages

Cybersecurity and data breaches pose a constant threat to our digital lives. Many people don’t think about when a cyber attack will occur, but if it will. Today, businesses and individuals are discovering that they may have been the victims of a data breach. It may seem impossible to prevent a cyber attack from happening, even though it is a real possibility.
This can be true, even if it is not addressed in a proactive manner. It all comes down to the company’s cyber security procedures and policies. It can be a good first step to become more aware of the stages of a cyber attack and help you prevent a bad actor from accessing your network or systems.
Stories of successful cyber attacks, from the Colonial Pipeline to Solar Winds, seem to be appearing in our news outlets almost every day. The cyber attack lifecycle is a series of stages that the public does not see, despite the fact that they are only told about the incident after it has occurred.
According to Palo Alto Networks there are six stages in the cyber attack lifecycle. Each of these six stages must be completed by any bad actor or malicious entity who wants to carry out a successful cyberattack. Failure at any stage will result in a failed cyber attack. If a company is not aware that their network or system are under attack, it could be a reprieve for their adversaries.
Understanding the stages of a cyber attack is crucial to better understand them and how you can defeat them.
Six Stages of Cyber Attack Lifecycle
Here’s a quick overview of the cyber attack lifecycle and a real-world example.
1. Reconnaissance. Reconnaissance. This is where potential cyber adversaries gather intelligence and information to plan their attack. These bad actors often collect information from popular websites like Facebook and Linkedin. Cyber adversaries can also collect intelligence on specific websites or emails from employees. The reconnaissance phase includes intelligence gathering and research on a network, data security and within relevant apps or website coding.
2. Weaponization and delivery. The next stage is weaponization of the information once the potential adversaries have completed the reconnaissance stage. There are a few variations in the delivery phase of the weaponization step. The weaponization stage also includes the delivery method. This includes email phishing, malicious attachments, and links with viruses. It takes only one user to open a malicious link or download and install malware.
3. Exploitation. Once the exploit has been deployed in the system, network, or code, this phase of the cyber attack cycle enacts weaponization. This stage is the adversary’s first entry to the organization. It’s similar to gaining a foothold at a beach and turning it into an area for staging.
4. Installation. Installation is similar to the end of the exploit stage. This is where the delivery device and malicious malware accomplish their task of compromising the desired area. The installation stage is not designed to gain access to the data, but to provide a secure connection to a network or system that allows adversaries to launch attacks.
5. Command and Control. Command and Control are often separated, but are essential to each others, just like weaponization and delivery. This stage being called command and control can evoke military overtones. This stage does exactly what it’s called in its purest meaning. Now, the adversaries are in command on each side

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The 6 Components of the PKI

It can be difficult to understand the public key infrastructure (PKI) at a high level. However, breaking it down into smaller components makes it easier. Many of these components reuse or build on the basic or elementary components.
Asymmetric cryptography is what we mean by public key encryption. This is where anyone can encrypt data with the public key, but only the person, process or system with the private keys can decrypt it.
PKI is a combination of a private and public key pair. We would need to make our public key available to anyone who wants to receive encrypted messages. Then, we have our private key that can decrypt the message. We use their public key to encrypt our message, and they decrypt it with their private key.
With all this in mind let’s look at the six components of public-key encryption. This is useful for both IT pros as well as non-technical people.
CompTIA A+ Core 2, 220-1002Related training from SPOTO
Get started training1. Self-signed
Self-signed is not the only way to create a key pair. This is something that is important to grasp in order to understand. There are two main methods of creating the public key/signing it. The first is to use a certificate authority, or CA. You can also self-sign. This refers to certificates that are not signed by a CA. They are typically signed on the spot by the system or application, but some certificates are signed “from factory” well in advance.
Because it is easy to generate without the need for a CA, a self-signed key is often the starting point. It is also free, so it works out well. TLS/encryption are very important. Many services come pre-installed with an SSL certificate. There are many barriers that could prevent a public CA issuing these certificates directly from the factory. Therefore, they start off with a self signed certificate that is generated on the first run or boot. Many system administrators will later replace them with CA-signed certificates.
A self-signed certificate is not trusted by default. If it will be used continuously, the other end will have to trust it only once. Any Linux Administrator or System Administrator who had to access a default web interface to manage tools likely encountered a self-signed cert that the browser didn’t trust. You had to push through to allow the untrusted certificate to reach the content.
2.Private Keys
Private keys are a name that is well-known because they must be kept secret and shared only when absolutely necessary. They should be kept under strict access control. If someone had access to any private keys, they could decrypt encrypted data it protects.
It is crucial that you do not keep duplicates of your private keys around. You run the risk of your private keys being compromised if you do. If a private key is ever compromised, a new one should always be generated and the certificate or public key should be revoked to ensure it cannot be used again.
3. Public Keys
Public keys are public keys. These keys are shared to allow others to encrypt data you or your systems will decrypt at one point. It’s similar to a mailing address. You want people to be capable of sending you mail so that it can be delivered to your mailbox. The private key is like a locked mailbox. You are the only one who can retrieve the key. The mailman can deliver mail to it.
Unintended mail or advertisements may occasionally be sent to your address. However, it is not a security problem and is a minor inconvenience. The same applies to sharia.

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New Training: Developing Microsoft SQL Server Databases

SPOTO trainer Garth Schulte teaches you the knowledge database administrators need in order to create Microsoft SQL Server databases, optimize them, implement views, and manage transactions. This 60-video video training is advanced.
This is the new Microsoft Database Development training.
The remaining time to earn the MCSE Data Management and Analytics certification is very limited. The exam will expire in January 2020. However, if you are able to earn your MCSE: Data Management and Analytics certification before January 2020, the exam will expire.
You can watch a video from the series here:

This series includes the following skills:
Microsoft SQL Server 2012: Building Databases (70-464)
Microsoft SQL Server 2014: Building Databases (70-464)

This training covers the following topics:
Designing Lock Granularity
Demo: Automation
Demo: Working with User-Defined Functions
Designing table-valued and scaler functions
Create, Use, and Alter User-Defined Functions

This training includes:
21 hours of training
60 videos

Get started learning Microsoft Database Development today!
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SPOTO offers everything you need to improve your IT skills and advance in your career: unlimited video training and Practice exams, Virtual Labs and validated learning with in–video Quizzes, Accountability coaching, and access to our exclusive IT professionals community.

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