AWS EBS Volume Types
AWS offers the following EBS volume types. They differ in price and performance, and can be customized to meet storage and cost needs.
Solid state drives (SSD-backed), volumes optimized for transactional workloads that involve frequent read/write operations with low I/O sizes. The dominant performance attribute of IOPSGeneral Purpose SSD is gp2/gp3.
Provisioned IOPS SSD SSD (io1/io2)
HDD-backed volumes of hard disk drives (HDD) are optimized for large streaming workloads. Throughput (measured as MiB/s is a better performance measurement than IOPSThroughput Optimized HDD [st1]).
Cold HDD (sc1)
Magnetic Volumes (standard) (Previous Generation)EBS Volume Types (New Generation)Solid state drives (SSD-backed) volumesGeneral Purpose SSD Volumes (gp2/gp3)
SSD volumes for general purposes are cost-effective storage that can be used for a wide range of workloads.
General Purpose SSD volumes deliver single-digit millisecond latencies
The general purpose SSD volumes can be as small as 1 GiB up to 16 TiB.
Volumes of General Purpose SSD (gp2) have a maximum throughput rate of 160 MiB/s (at least 214 GiB).
Provides a baseline performance of 3 IOPS/GiB
Provides the ability to burst up to 3,000 IOPS over extended periods of time for volumes less than 1 TiB, and up to a maximum 16,000 IOPS (at 5.334 GiB).
If the volume performance is not as good as the baseline level due to an empty I/O credit, you might consider using a larger General Purpose SSD volume (with higher baseline performance)
For workloads that require IOPS performance greater then 16,000 IOPS, you can switch to a Provisioned SSD volume.
Volumes of General Purpose SSD (gp3) storage are provided with a baseline rate of 3,000 IOPS, 125 MiB/s, and are included in the price of storage.
Additional IOPS (upto 16,000) or throughput (upto 1,000 MiB/s), can be provided at an additional cost.
The maximum ratio of provisioned IOPS and provisioned volume size to provisioned IOPS is 500 IOPS/GiB
Provisioned throughput to provisioned IOPS is at.25 MiB/s. I/O Credits and Burst Performance
I/O credits are the bandwidth that the General Purpose SSD volume has available to burst large amounts I/O when it is required beyond the baseline performance.
Volume size determines the volume performance for general purpose SSD (gp2) volumes. This is the benchmark performance level of the volume, for e.g. 100 GiB volume has 300 IOPS @ 3IOPS/GiB
The general purpose SSD volume size determines how quickly it accumulates I/O credit for e.g. 100 GiB can accumulate 180K IOPS/10 minutes with a performance of $300 IOPS (300 * 60* 10).
Larger volumes have a higher baseline performance and accumulate I/O credit faster for e.g. 1 TiB has a baseline performance level of 3000 IOPS
The volume’s I/O credits are more valuable than its baseline performance level. It can also burst faster when it needs more performance, such as when it is running at 3000 IOPS for 1 minute. 300 GiB volume can burst at 3000 IOPS in 1 minute (180K/3000).
Each volume receives an I/O credit balance equal to 5,400,000 I/O credits. This is sufficient to sustain the maximum burst performance for 30 minutes at 3,000 IOPS.
The initial credit balance is designed for a quick boot cycle for boot volumes, and a great bootstrapping experience with other applications.
Each volume can accumulate I/O credit over a time period that can be used to increase performance up to a maximum of 3,000 IOPS
Unutilized I/O credit cannot exceed 54,00,000.
Volumes up to 1 TiB can explode up to 3000 IOPS above and beyond its baseline performance
Volumes greater than 1 TiB have a baseline performance equal to or higher than the maximum burst performance. Their I/O credit balance is never exhausted.
For General Purpose SSD volumes, the baseline performance cannot exceed 10000 IOPS. This limit is reached @ 3333 GiB